NOAA funds research, education and outreach, and control activities on aquatic invasive species issues primarily through the National Sea Grant Program, with some activities funded through the National Ocean Service and National Marine Fisheries Service. Its aquatic invasive species management efforts focus on marine systems and the Great Lakes. Research efforts include monitoring the impacts of aquatic invasive species on coastal and other ecosystems, developing control and mitigation options, and preventing new introductions by, among other things, developing new technologies for ballast water management. NOAA performs economic evaluations of the costs of aquatic invasive species and conducts control programs to eradicate and prevent their spread. NOAA also has regulatory authority to prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive species that may affect marine sanctuaries, such as the Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary, endangered or threatened species, coastal areas, and essential fish habitats.